Oxidising biocides attack microorganisms by oxidising (an electron transfer reaction) the cell structure, disrupting nutrients from passing across the cell wall.
Biocides are usually slug fed to a system to bring about rapid effective population reductions from which the microrganisms cannot easily recover. There are various different biocides, some of which have a wide range of effect on many different kinds of bacteria.
Types of Oxidising Biocides
Chlorine is the most widely used industrial biocide today. It has been used for disinfection of domestic water supplies and for the removal of tastes and odours from water for a long time. The amount of chlorine that needs to be added in a water system is determined by several factors, namely chlorine demand, contact time, pH and temperature of the water, the volume of water and the amount of chlorine that is lost through aeration.
When chlorine gas enters a water supply it will hydrolyse to form hypochlorous and hydrochlorous acid. The latter determines the biocidal activity
Chlorine dioxide is an active oxidising biocide, that is applied more an more due to the fact that is has less damaging effects to the environment and human health than chlorine. It does not form hydrochlorous acids in water; it exists as dissolved chlorine dioxide, a compound that is a more reactive biocide at higher pH ranges.
Chlorine dioxide is an explosive gas, and therefore it has to be produced or generated on site.
Hypochlorite is salt from hypochlorous acid. It is formulated in several different forms. Usually hypochlorite is applied as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2). These compounds can be applied as biocides. They function in very much the same way as chlorine, although they are a bit less effective.
Ozone is naturally instable. It can be used as a powerful oxidising agent, when it is generated in a reactor. As a biocide it acts in much the same way as chlorine; it disturbs the formation of ATP, so that the cell respiration of microrganisms will be made difficult. During oxidation with ozone, bacteria usually die from loss of life-sustaining cytoplasm.
A number of factors determine the amount of ozone required during oxidation, these are pH, temperature, organics and solvents, and accumulated reaction products.
Ozone is more environmentally friendly than chlorine, because it does not add chlorine to the water system. Due to its decomposition to oxygen it will not harm aquatic life.
Usually 0.5 ppm of ozone is added to a water system, either on continuous or intermittent basis.
Silver Hydrogen Peroxide
Robinson India offers effective alternative broad-spectrum, disinfecting and microbial controls solutions surface dsinfection and industrial water treatment. Simple and sustainable, our biocide products are superior in microorganism killing performance, providing occupational health benefits and reduced treatment costs. This biocide decomposes entirely into environmentally harmless components. By-products include water and oxygen.
Peracetic acid (C2H4O3) is a mixture of acetic acid (CH3COOH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a watery solution. It is a bright, colorless liquid that has a piercing odor and a low pH value (2,8).
Peracetic acid can also be produced by oxidation of acethaldehyde. Peracetic acid is usually produced in concentrations of 5-15%.
When peracetic acid dissolves in water, it disintegrates to hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid, which will fall apart to water, oxygen and carbon dioxide. Peracetic acid degradation products are non-toxic and can easily dissolve in water.
Peracetic acid is a very powerful oxidant; the oxidation potential outranges that of chlorine and chlorine dioxide.
TCCA has an excellent bactericidal property and is a new generation of broad-spectrum, high efficiency, low-toxicity fungicides, bleacher and anti-shrinking agent. It is mainly used in the disinfection and sterilization of drinking water, industrial water recycling, swimming pool, restaurants, hotels, public places, homes, hospitals, eggs and prevention of fish diseases. It has a killing effect on almost all fungi, bacteria, viruses, and spores. It is safe and convenient to use. This product can also be widely used in food, dairy, rice seed processing, fruit preservation, fiber bleaching, wool shrink, daily chemical decolorization, wood mold paper making, rubber oxidation and battery materials.
Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate is an external broad-spectrum disinfectant, bactericidal, algaecidal deodorant, widely used in the disinfection and sterilization of drinking water, restaurant, hotel, hospital, public bath, swimming pool, air, food processing plant, dairy farm. Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate is also applicable for infectious diseases, as routine disinfection, preventive disinfection and the environmental disinfection of all kinds of public places.
Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate (SDIC) widely applied for the sterilization of swimming pool and drinking water, or fighting against infectious diseases, or act as disinfectant in raising silkworm, livestock, poultry and fish. Other applications of SDIC are found in wool shrinkage, textile bleaching, and industrial circulating water cleaning. Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate is normally supplied in powder and granular, tablets are also available on request. Stabilised chlorine granular (dichlor) are used very widely to chlorinate swimming pool water.
Calcium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with formula Ca(ClO)2. It is widely used for water treatment and as a bleaching agent (bleaching powder). This chemical is considered to be relatively stable and has greater available chlorine than sodium hypochlorite(liquid bleach).
Uses of Calcium Hypochlorite:
- Disinfection of drinking water or swimming pool water.
- as a sanitizer in outdoor swimming pools in combination with a cyanuric acid stabilizer.
- To reduces the loss of chlorine due to ultraviolet radiation.
- Calcium content hardens the water and tends to clog up some filters.
- bathroom cleaners, household disinfectant sprays, moss and algae removers, and weedkillers.
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