Non Oxidising Biocides

Reduce bacterial growth and slime with advanced non-oxidizing biocides

Robinson India’s high performance non-oxidising biocides are used to control microbiological activity in a wide range of commercial cleaning, disinfection, environmental hygiene, industrial and process water treatment activities. They are often used in combination with oxidising biocides to provide complete system control.

Reverse osmosis (RO) systems are favorable environments for microorganisms to thrive. Robinson India non-oxidizing biocides that are highly effective in reducing bacterial growth and the build-up of slime on a variety of membrane types. In many cases oxidising agents are not effective biocides. Non-oxidising agents are than applied.

Benefits of Non Oxidising Biocides

  1. Offers Strong Detergency & Rapid, Safe, Powerful Antimicrobial activity at low ppm.
  2. Based Disinfectants are Non-toxic, Non-tainting & Odour-free at use dilutions.
  3. Compatible with Non-ionic, Ampholytic and Cationic surface-active agents.
Non Oxidising Biocide

Types of Non Oxidising Biocides


Acrolein is an extremely effective non oxidising biocide that has an environmental advantage over oxidising biocides, because it can easily be deactivated by sodium sulphite before discharge to a receiving stream.
Acrolein has the ability to attack and distort protein groups and enzyme synthesis reactions. It is usually fed to water systems as a gas in amounts of 0.1 to 0.2 ppm in neutral to slightly alkaline water.
Acrolein is not used very frequently, as it is extremely flammable and also toxic.


Amines are effective surfactants that can act as non oxidising biocides due to their ability to kill microrganisms. They can enhance the biocidal effect of chlorinated phenolics when they are applied in water.

Chlorinated phenolics

Chlorinated phenolics, unlike oxidising biocides, have no effect on respiration of microrganisms. However, they do induce growth. The chlorinated phenolics first adsorb to the cell wall of microrganisms by interaction with hydrogen bonds. After adsorption to the cell wall they will diffuse into the cell where they go into suspension and precipitate proteins. Due to this mechanism the growth of the microrganisms is inhibited.

Copper salts

Copper salts have been used as non oxidising biocides for a long time, but their use has been limited in recent years due to concerns about heavy metal contamination. They are applied in amounts of 1 to 2 ppm.
When the water that is treated is located in steel tanks copper salts should not be applied, because of their ability to corrode steel. Copper salts should not be used in water that will be applied as drinking water either, because they are toxic to humans.

Organo-sulphur compounds

Organo-sulphur compounds act as non oxidising biocides by inhibiting cell growth. There are a variety of different organo-sulphur compounds that function in different pH ranges.
Normally energy is transferred in bacterial cells when iron reacts from Fe3+ to Fe2+. Organo-sulphur compounds remove the Fe3+ by complexion as an iron salt. The transfer of energy through the cells is than stopped and immediate cell death will follow.

Quaternary ammonium salts

Quaternary ammonium salts are surface-active chemicals that consist generally of one nitrogen atom, surrounded by substitutes containing eight to twenty-five carbon atoms on four sights of the nitrogen atom. They are non oxidising biocide.
These compounds are generally most effective against bacteria in alkaline pH ranges. They are positively charged and will bond to the negatively charged sites on the bacterial cell wall. These electrostatic bonds will cause the bacteria to die of stresses in the cell wall. They also cause the normal flow of life-sustaining compounds through the cell wall to stop, by declining its permeability.
Use of quaternary ammonium salts is limited, due to their interaction with oil when this is present and the fact that they can cause foaming.

Non Oxidising Biocides in our Portfolio


Bronopol is an organic non oxidising biocide that is used as an antimicrobial. It is a white solid although commercial samples appear yellow. Bronopol is used in consumer products as an effective preservative agent, as well as a wide variety of industrial applications (almost any industrial water system is a potential environment for bacterial growth, leading to slime and corrosion problems – in many of these systems Bronopol can be a highly effective treatment).1

Formula: C3H6BrNO4
Boiling point: 140 °C
Melting point: 130 °C
UN number: 3241
Classification: Organic compound
GHS hazard statements: H302, H312, H315, H318, H335, H400

Benzalkonium Chloride

Benzalkonium chloride (BKC) is a wide-spectrum quaternary-ammonium antimicrobial agent and non oxidising biocide used in multiple industries such as water treatment, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, textile, oil and gas industry etc. It is colorless to yellowish transparent liquid. It is extensively used in disinfectants and cleaner-sanitiser compositions for hospitals, livestock, food & dairy and personal hygiene sectors.2

Chemical formula: variable
Solubility in water: very soluble
Flash point: 250 °C (482 °F; 523 K) (if solvent based)
Density: 0.98 g/cm3
GHS hazard statements: H302, H312, H314, H318, H400, H410


Isothiazolinones are broad-spectrum, non oxidising biocide that can be used in a wide range of industrial applications. The product formulation helps to inhibit the growth of microbes and has inhibition and biocidal effects on most of the common bacteria, fungi and algae found in water.3

Formula: C3H3NOS
Boiling point: 86.33 °C
Chemical formula: C3H3NOS
GHS hazard statements: H302, H312, H315, H319, H332, H335
GHS Signal word: Warning
Molar mass: 101.127


Iodophor, a combination of iodine and a solubilizing agent is a wide spectrum non oxidising biocide, bacteriocide, tuberculocide, fungicide and virucide. It is used as an exceptional antiseptic in infection treatment and wound healing. Its resulting complex provides a sustained-release reservoir of iodine and releases small amounts of free iodine in aqueous solution. It is a highly efficient microbicide with a wide antimicrobial spectrum.


Glutaraldehyde is an exceptional disinfectant which is a transparent, colorless, water-soluble and oily liquid. It is utilized as a fixative for biological tissues, alcohol and benzene. It is widely used in industries like oil production, medical care, biochemicals, leather treatment, tanning agents, protein cross-linking agent, and in the preparation of heterocyclic compounds for plastics, adhesives, fuels, perfumes, printing, paper making, textiles etc. Alongside, it is used for corrosion prevention of instruments and cosmetics etc as well as to sterilize surgical instruments and other surface areas.

Formula: C5H8O2
Molar mass: 100.11 g/mol
Density: 1.06 g/cm³
Solubility in water: Miscible, reacts
Boiling point: 187 °C (369 °F; 460 K)
Melting point: −14 °C (7 °F; 259 K)


Carbamate is an organosulfur based non oxidising biocide. It varies in its spectrum of activity, toxicity and persistence with widespread use in parallel applications. It is a relatively unstable compound that breaks down in the environment within weeks or months.

A carbamate is a category of organic compounds that is formally derived from carbamic acid. The term includes organic compounds, formally obtained by replacing one or more of the hydrogen atoms by other organic functional groups; as well as salts with the carbamate anion H ₂NCOO⁻


Dichlorophen is an antimicrobial agent, which is used as an algaecide, bactericide, fungicide, germicide, herbicide, pesticide and an anticestodal agent in multiple applications. Due to its low aqueous solubility and specific chemical properties, it is unlikely to leach to groundwater

It is used as a pesticide to control various infections in agricultural and horticultural crops as well as in non-crop situations. It is used in combination with toluene for the effective removal of parasites such as ascarids, hookworms, and tapeworms from animals as dogs and cats. Since it is practically insoluble in water, little absorption is presumed to follow oral administration.

Formula: C13H10Cl2O2
Molar mass: 269.12 g/mol
Melting point: 177.5 °C
Solubility in water: 0.003 g/100 mL mg/mL (20 °C)
Density: 1.5 g/cm3 g/cm3.


Triclosan is an antibacterial and antifungal agent. It is a polychloro phenoxy phenol.This non oxidising biocide is a white powdered solid with a slight aromatic/phenolic odor.

Triclosan is used mainly in antiperspirants/deodorants, cleansers, and hand sanitizers as a preservative and an anti-bacterial agent. In addition to cosmetics, triclosan is also used as an antibacterial agent in laundry detergent, facial tissues, and antiseptics for wounds, as well as a preservative to resist bacteria, fungus, mildew and odors in other household products that are sometimes advertized as “anti-bacterial.” These products include garbage bags, toys, linens, mattresses, toilet fixtures, clothing, furniture fabric, and paints. Triclosan also has medical applications.

Formula: C12H7Cl3O2
Molar mass: 289.54 g/mol
Melting point: 55 °C
Boiling point: 120 °C
Density: 1.49 g/cm³

THPS – Tetrakis Hydroxymethyl Phosphonium Sulfate

THPS biocide is a kind of environmental-friendly water treatment non oxidising biocide which is made of tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate (THPS 75%) solution. It can withhold sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), most of aerobic bacteria including microorganisms that form biofilm in enhanced oil recovery process, production and other supporting systems such as water injection equipments, well water disposal facilities, water holding tanks, recirculating water treatment systems and pipelines. THPS biocide is also effective in controlling microbial growth in drilling muds and stimulation fluids for oil and gas wells. Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate is characterized by its low solidity point and good stability.

Chemical formula: (HOCH2)4PCl


DBNPA is a highly effective, environmentally friendly non oxidising biocide. It provides a quick kill while also quickly degrading in water. The final end product is carbon dioxide and ammonium bromide. Compatibility with other water treatment chemicals and water conditions: DBNPA is compatible with other treatment chemicals with the exception of mercaptobenzothiazole. It also is not compatible with ammonia or hydrogen sulfide-containing water. DBNPA maintains reliable control in systems running at acidic, neutral, or alkaline pH.Degradation in water: DBNPA degrades quickly in aqueous environments. At neutral pH, its half-life is about nine hours (Exner, Burk and Kyriacou: Rates and Products of Decomposition of 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide, J. Agr. Food Chem., Vol. 21, 1973, pp. 838–842). Continuous biocide release by the tablet maintains concentrations effective for control in the tower, while the biocide in the blowdown discharge degrades quickly. So it’s easy to meet strict environmental regulations on tower discharge.


SPCP is an organochlorine compound used primarily as preservatives of wood and wood products, secondarily as herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, molluscicides, and bactericides in both industrial and agricultural applications.

SPCP eliminates the yellowing of treated timber and is useful as fungicide of organic solvent preservatives. The wood preservation industry uses this product to extend the useful life of wood, primarily utility poles and railroad crossties, protecting them from insect damage and decay.

It is used in other multiple applications; as a molluscicide for the destruction of the snail, intermediate hosts of the human schistosomes, in an effort to control schistosomiasis; a fungicide and a bactericide in the processing of cellulosic products, starches, adhesives, proteins, leather, oils, paints, and rubber; and is incorporated into rug shampoos and textiles to control mildew problems.

Alongside, it is also used in food processing plants to control mould and slime.

QAC Based Disinfectant

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds based disinfectant are the most widely used non oxidising biocides in food or beverage businesses. Properly formulated products are effective against gram positive bacteria and against gram negative bacteria, but less effective against spores, moulds and fungi.

QAC based disinfectants are stable and generally taint free. They may be inactivated by hard water, organic material and some plastics. To improve the effectiveness of QACs, formulations often include sequestrants and non-ionic detergents.

Chlorhexidine Gluconate

Chlorhexidine Gluconate Solution is the product of Chlorhexidine, known for its usage as a chemical antiseptic. Also used as an antiseptic and disinfectant agent. It is effective against a wide range of bacteria, some fungi and some viruses, and an agent for the prevention of gingivitis. Commercial ophthalmic products have used this agent to replace thimerosal as a preservative; however, it can cause skin irritation.

The solution is used to enhance the properties of various medical products. Some of them are :

  • Mouthwash
  • Skin cleansers
  • Contact lens solutions
  • Besides medical uses, it has various other applications as well

Formula: C22H30Cl2N10
Other names: 1,6-bis(4-chloro-phenylbiguanido)hexane
Solubility in water: 0.8
Melting point: 134 to 136 °C (273 to 277 °F)

DDAC – Didecyldimethylammonium chloride

DDAC (Didecyldimethylammonium chloride) is an antiseptic and disinfectant used in multiple biocidal applications. It is a typical quaternary ammonium biocide as well as a white hygroscopic solid with aromatic odour. It is used for both indoor and outdoor hard surfaces, eating utensils, laundry, carpets, swimming pools, decorative ponds, recirculating cooling water systems etc. It has a widespread use as a disinfectant cleaner for linen. Alongside, it is also used in occupational therapy, as well as for the sterilization of surgical instruments, endoscopes and other surface disinfection.

Molar mass: 362.08 g/mol
Formula: C22H48ClN
Density: 950 kg/m³
ATC code: D08AJ06 (WHO)
Main hazards: corrosive


Octyl Decyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride is a dialkyl quat, applied as disinfectant, sanitizer and fungicidal product for a large number of applications. ODDAC has excellent wide spectrum germ kill ability, film forming residual, low toxicity and corrosivity, simple to use, good shelf life, works in a variety of pH ranges, highly concentrated, no odor, and safe on most surfaces. It is the choice disinfectant for most hospitals and health institutions.

ADEBAC – alkyl dimethyl ethylbenzyn ammonium chloride

ADEBAC solution is a mixed Alkyl chain Dimethyl Benzyl and Dialkyl Methyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride that can be used in a variety of water treatment applications. When used as an active ingredient in a formulation such as a hard surface disinfectant and/or certain types of water treatment applications, this product is effective as a broad-spectrum biocide against microbial organisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses and algae.

PHMB – Polyhexamethylene Biguanide

PHMB – Polyhexamethylene Biguanide is a broad spectrum, fast acting bactericide for the formulation of disinfectants and sanitisers, for use in industrial, institutional, agricultural, food, beverage and domestic applications.


1,6-dihydroxy-2,5-dioxahexane is a high performance non-oxidising biocide material used efficiently in fungicidal, sporicidal, tuberculocidal and bactericidal activities. It kills microorganisms present in surface areas such as sinks, waste receivers, overhead lights, trolleys, operation tables, room surfaces and other specific areas of its usage. Separate corrosion inhibitors are added 1,6-dihydroxy-2,5-dioxahexane for advanced protection of expensive surfaces.

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